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Introduction Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) Technologies

This website introduces different NGS technologies. Since Sanger sequencing is termed first generation sequencing, some divide NGS technologies in second generation and third generation sequencing technologies. The preferred applications of different sequencing technologies are described in more detail under NGS Services.

Introduction Second Generation Sequencing Technologies

Roche 454 was one of the first technologies who entered the NGS market with its 454 pyrosequencing technology, due to high sequencing costs Roche lost great market shares.

Illumina is the clear market leader in the sequencing market. Illumina offers a wide range of different sequencing platform, numerous accessories and solutions for different applications. Learn more about Illumina sequencing platforms and how sequencing by synthesis (SBS) works.

Ion Torrent offers cost-effective, simple and fast sequencing based on semiconductive sequencing technology.
End of 2015 Qiagen entered the sequencing market with its GeneReader platform. This technology is the first complete sample to insight next-generation sequencing (NGS) solution developed for application in human diagnostics based on QIAact targeted gene panels.

In 2015 Complete genomics launched the Revolocity™ representing a high throughput solution for whole genome sequencing (WGS)and whole exome sequencing (WES), targeting a future capacity of 30.000 WGS / year.

Introduction Third Generation Sequencing Technologies

Pacific Biosciences (PacBio) and Oxford Nanopore technologies are the major third generation sequencing technologies that enable long read sequencing in one read. The PacBio single molecule real time (SMRT) technology is based on specific enzymes and nanophotonic visualization chambers.

Oxford Nanopore Technologies enables sequencing by utilization of specific enzymes in combination with nanopores. Semiconductivity based measurements of membrane current flow changes are translated into DNA sequence information.

Nanopore Sequencing Technologies

Different concepts are under development in order to improve nanopore based sequencing. Oxford nanopore technologies (A) measures the characteristic changes in membrane current flow induced by the natural nucleotides passing through the nanopore. Genia Technology (B) measures the characteristic changes in membrane current flow induced by specific tags that are guided through the nanopore. These tags were previously bound to each nucleotide on the double stranded DNA template. Stratos Genomics (C) measures the characteristic changes in membrane current flow induced by a synthetic DNA strand that passes through a nanopore. This synthetic DNA strand consists of expandable nucleotides (X-NTPs) and was generated by replacing one DNA strand of the double stranded DNA template.

Disruptive NGS Technologies

A number of new and disruptive next generation sequencing technologies are under development, evaluation and commercialization such as Genia Technology, Genius, GnuBio, Lasergen, Nabsys and more. Most of these technologies are currently not available on the market and its relevance for the future sequencing market will be seen.

To learn more about the leading NGS technologies follow the links to the corresponding demo video. 

Illumina  |  Ion Torrent   |  454 Roche  |  Nanopore Technologies  |  PacBio